Fokus ROMI.HR

/
Print - ŠKOLSKI SUSTAV U NJEMAČKOJ

ŠKOLSTVO U NJEMAČKOJ

15. 11. 2018.
ŠKOLSKI SUSTAV U NJEMAČKOJ

Njemačka je jedna od zemalja koja je među prvima uvela sustav općeg obrazovanja i kroz procese promjena i prilagodbi ga usuglasila s potrebama i interesima društva.

Autor: Alexandar Schilde

Njemački sustav obrazovanja vuče korijene iz 15. i 16. stoljeća, kada je bio pod velikim utjecajem luteranizma. Luther se veoma snažno borio za školski sustav, u kom svako dijete mora pohađati školu kako bi naučilo pravilno čitati i pisati. To je bilo u funkciji oslobađanja od apsolutizma katoličke crkve te omogućavanje ljudima da samostalno čitaju Bibliju.

Od tada, njemačke škole imaju nastavu vjeronauka, koju provode crkve u suradnji sa državom. U 18. stoljeću nastaje Prusko carstvo i tada je ovaj sustav bio dodatno učvršćen. Vlada je proširila nastavni plan i uvela nastavu u oblasti etike, građanskog obrazovanja i dužnosti. Ovaj nastavni plan je stvoren s ciljem da se društvo militarizira i osobito da se dječaci pripreme za služenje obveznog vojnog roka. Kada 1871. godine nastaje Njemačko carstvo, školski sustav se dodatno centralizira i ljudi su se morali bolje obrazovati kako bi se svojim profesijama uspješnije bavili i na taj način ispunjavali narasle zahtjeve koje je nametala industrijalizacija. Tokom ovog perioda uvedeni su i različiti modeli škola kako bi se budući radnici specijalizirali za različite profesije. Tokom vremena sustav podjele na različite modele škola je pretrpio manje promjene ali je u biti ostao isti do sada.

Uopćeno govoreći, njemački sustav obrazovanja je prilično zbunjujući, pogotovo za ljude iz inozemstva. Osnovni razlog za to jeste činjenica da se on u velikoj mjeri razlikuje od sustava u drugim državama.

Glavna razlika između njemačkog  sustava i onih koji postoje u Hrvatskoj ili u drugim državama Balkana je u tome što osnovna škola traje samo 4 godine. Trajanje osnovnog obrazovanja se može razlikovati u različitim njemačkim pokrajinama, te u nekim traje i do 6 godina. Sva djeca polaze u školu sa 6 godina, osnovno obrazovanje je obavezno i potpuno besplatno i podrazumijeva stjecanje osnovnih znanja iz matematike, pisanja i čitanja.

Nakon ovog stupnja obrazovanja, učenici se razvrstavaju po različitim usmjerenjima. Sukladno njihovom talentu, interesima i sposobnostima pojedinca, biraju između 3 različita usmjerenja. Kako bi izabrali usmjerenje koje im je najprivlačnije, učenici moraju postići određeni uspjeh, koji se mjeri prosječnom ocjenom na kraju 4. razreda.

Učenici sa najnižim prosjekom odlaze u ‘’Hauptschule’’, koju pohađaju od 5. do 9. razreda i čiji je cilj da što prije osposobi učenike za posao. Učenici uglavnom završavaju ovakvu školu sa 15 ili 16 godina i započinju naukovanje. Postoji međutim opcija za učenike sa visokim ocjenama odlučiti se za nastavak školovanja na višoj razini. Nakon završenog dodatnog, 10. razreda, učenici stječu diplomu ‘’Realschule’’.

Druga po zahtjevnosti između ove tri opcije je „Realschule“, koja traje od 5. do 10. razreda. Učenici je obično završavaju sa 16 ili 17 godina. Uglavnom je namijenjena učenicima koji se žele baviti ekonomijom, vezanom za trgovinu i uredske poslove. Nakon pohađanja ove škole postoji mogućnost daljeg obrazovanja, ali statistike pokazuju da većina ljudi nakon završetka ove škole počinje raditi. Osim toga, studenti se mogu specijalizirati u različitim područjima i zato se opredjeljuju za izborne predmete koji variraju od upravljanja domaćinstvom do poslova u području socijalnog rada.

Važno je međutim napomenuti da niti pohađanje ‘’Hauptschule’’ niti ‘’Realschule’’ ne ostavlja mogućnost pohađanja fakulteta. Kako bi se upisali na fakultet kroz njemački obrazovni sustav neophodno je da maturirate u gimnaziji.

Gimnazija predstavlja najviši nivo srednjeg obrazovanja između tri modela srednješkolskog obrazovanja u Njemačkoj i u velikoj mjeri se razlikuje od prethodne dvije opcije. Prije svega, traje od 5. do 12. razreda, a u nekim slučajevima I do 13. razreda. Učenici završavaju gimnaziju sa 18. Ili 19. godina. U gimnazijama postoji obaveza učenja drugog stranog jezika i pohađanja nastave iz kemije, biologije ili fizike. Kao što je prethodno spomenuto, samo ova škola omogućava učenicima da pohađaju fakultet. Važno je još napomenuti kako pravo na pohađanje određenih fakulteta ovisi o ocjeni ostvarenoj kroz prosjek ocjena u zadnjoj godini gimnazije i ocjena s mature. Razlike u zahtijevanom uspjehu iz gimnazija za upis na različite smjerove na fakultetima su ogromne.

Osim ova tri modela srednjoškolskog obrazovanja postoji i četvrti, koji nosi naziv Gesamtschule (sveobuhvatna ili opća škola). Ovaj model se razlikuje na način da predstavlja kombinaciju sva tri modela u jednoj zgradi i učenici se mogu prebacivati s jednog modela na drugi, što nisu u mogućnosti raditi u drugim modelima školovanja. On omogućuje studentima više slobode pri izboru i promjeni vrste škole koju će pohađati.

Pored teorijskog znanja, učenici moraju pokazati i određeni nivo razumijevanja duboko ukorijenjenih karakteristika njemačkog društva, koje podrazumijevaju vrlo precizan sustav podjele. Ulaženje u detalje bi bilo suprotno namjeni ovog članka, ali treba reći kako živjeti u suvremenom njemačkom društvu znači živjeti u društvu u kojoj dominira materijalizam. Ovaj trend, naravno, postoji svuda u svijetu, ali pogotovu Njemačka sa stalnim napretkom ekonomske moći, postavlja jako visoke standarde. Smisao iznesene tvrdnje je ukazati kako ovi visoki standardi utiču na društvo i u tom smislu  posebno na sustav obrazovanja. kao i na studente koji su dio tog sustava.

 

Prije svega, ovakav sustav stavlja veliki pritisak na učenike, kao i na njihove roditelje i to je uglavnom zbog toga što je nečiji položaj u društvu u Njemačkoj određen razinom obrazovanja. Visina plaće svakako doprinosi položaju u društvu, ali veliki utjecaj će imati i nečije zanimanje. Dobar primjer bi bila usporedba inžinjera i direktora nekog sektora u banci. Pripadnici obje profesije imaju plaću, koja je natprosječna i koja zahtjeva visoko obrazovanje, ali kada je riječ o ugledu u društvu, koji proizlazi iz posla koji rade, dosta se razlikuju. Inženjer je vrlo cijenjena pozicija u njemačkom društvu i ona donosi veliki ugledu u društvu. S druge strane na direktore u banci se ne gleda s puno povjerenja iako njihove mjesečne plaće mogu dosezati 10.000 Eura i više. Ovo razlikuje Njemačku od mnogih država, npr. od SAD gdje položaj ljudi u društvu najviše u puno većoj mjeri ovisi o visini prihoda.

Štoviše, ovakav odnos prema različitim profesijama rezultira s dodatnim pritiskom na obrazovni sustav. To se najjasnije može vidjeti promatrajući promjene u obrazovnom sustavu tokom prošlog stoljeća. Posljedica sustava obrazovana podijeljenog na više modela rezultira s pritiskom roditelja na djecu da upišu gimnaziju. Ovo pak rezultira s velikom navalom na gimnazije. Oko 34% svih srednjoškolskih učenika trenutno pohađa gimnazije što gimnazije čini najzastupljenijim srednjim školama u Njemačkoj. Drugi model srednješkolskog obrazovanja s 22% ukupnog broja učenika je ‘Realschule’.

 

Zbog toga je u gimnazijama došlo do prilagodbe nastavnog plana ovog modela srednješkolskog obrazovanja naraslom interesu stanovništva. S obzirom na tu činjenicu stalno raste broj razreda u gimnazijama, a naglasak se s sveobuhvatnog pristupa pojedinom predmetu usmjerio na manji broj ključnih elemenata. Iz tog razloga, učenicima je postalo manje važno da zaista razumiju ono što uče i povežu to znanje s drugim predmetima, svakodnevnim životom ili budućom profesijom. Ono što je značajnije jest da se uči s razumijevanjem, jer je to najsigurniji način da se osigura uspjeh kad je riječ o ocjenama.

Kao što je već spomenuto, ovo također utiče na visoko obrazovanje odnosno fakultete. Da bi se upisao fakultet, neophodna je matura u gimnaziji. Zbog iznimno velikog interesa za gimnazije i broja učenika koji ih pohađaju najveći broj akademskih ustanova u Njemačkoj je primoran stalno podizati zahtijevane standarde uspjeha u srednjoj školi. Visoki standardi sami po sebi ne djeluju negativno, ali jedna od posljedica je drastično povećanje nadmetanja koje postoji među učenicima i koje smanjuje osjećaj empatije.

Ipak, osnovni problem i ono što razlikuje postojeći sustav u usporedbi s onim iz prošlosti je to da su tokom 19. i početkom 20. stoljeća društveno prihvatljivi obrasci ponašanja bili drugačiji. To ne znači da je ranije sve bilo bolje, ali razlike koje postoje su velike. Na uspjeh se ranije nije gledalo kao na nešto što mora biti povezano sa visokom razinom obrazovanja. Na uspjeh se gledalo kao na sposobnost pojedinca da bude dobar u onome čime se bavi. Savjesnost je u tom periodu igrala važnu ulogu. To je proizvelo potpuno suprotne posljedice. Umjesto da šalju svoju djecu u školu, roditelji su im često zabranjivali da idu u školu, kako bi bili od pomoći u kućnim poslovima i stekli iskustvo u poslovima kojima se bavila njihova obitelj. Treba još spomenuti da je u to vrijeme školski sustav zahtijevao materijalnu sigurnost koju prosječni ljudi nisu imali.

Ove ogromne sustavne razlike imaju posljedicu da uslijed snažne usmjerenosti prema određenim akademskim zvanjima Njemačka se suočava sa nedostatkom kvalificiranih radnika u brojnim područjima rada.

Važno je spomenuti kako su ovim vrlo zahtjevnim sustavom najviše pogođeni pripadnici nacionalnih manjina. Gotovo sve nastavne aktivnosti se odvijaju na njemačkom jeziku i s obzirom na činjenicu da su profesori u Njemačkoj jako dobro plaćeni i da to predstavlja velike izdatke za njemačku Vladu, postoji nedostatak satova njemačkog za pripadnike nacionalnih manjina. Ovo vodi stanju u kom djeca pripadnika nacionalnih manjina ne mogu postići svoj puni potencijal. To znači da su u stvarnosti jako talentirana djeca, uslijed nedostatka znanja njemačkog jezika vrlo rano usmjerena na tip škole koji ne odgovara njihovim talentima i sposobnostima. S obzirom na činjenicu da sveobuhvatni model školovanja nije toliko čest u Njemačkoj, ovi učenici nemaju mogućnost da promjene smjer svog obrazovanja, čak i ako se njihovo znanje njemačkog jezika poboljša u velikoj mjeri.

 

 

 

The German school system

It has its origins in the 15th and 16th and was strongly influenced by Lutheranism. Luther himself fought very hard for a compulsory school system in which every child has to attend school in order to learn reading and writing properly. During this time this was mainly to gain independence from the absolutism of the church, giving people the ability to read the Bible themselves.

German public schools generally have religious education provided by the churches in cooperation with the state ever since. In the 18th century in the kingdom of Prussia this system of compulsory school was further enforced. The government enlarged the curriculum further in order to focus on topics like ethics, duty, discipline and obedience. This was made for the porpoise to control the people for e.g. military means and to make, especially boys, ready for their obligatory military service. The main goal was is to create a amore obedient population, that rather follows instead of questioning their government. In 1871, with the foundation of the German empire, the school system became even more centralized to establish a unified country. This also included unified rules regarding the language. Due to the increasing demands of the industrialization people had to be better educated in order to perform their professions. During this time the system of dividing in the different types of school was introduced first, to ensure people could specialize on their different professions. Although there were minor changes to it, this system of division mainly stayed the same until today.

Generally speaking, The German school system itself can be pretty confusing, especially for people from abroad. That’s mainly because it differs a lot from what other countries are implementing in this regard.

The first main difference happens at the start. Not like in Croatia, or the Balkan states in general, the elementary school, lasts for only four years. This can vary from the different federal states (lands) of Germany, and in some cases it lasts up to a maximum of six years. Staring at the age of six, every child has to attend this and basic knowledge regarding math’s, reading and writing are being told. English, as a obligatory subject, is added in the 4th class. It is however completely free of any charges, neither for books or other materials that are necessary.

 

After this period, pupils are getting divided and there are several options to choose from. This decision is mainly up to the parents and the children themselves, although teachers can make suggestions, and in very rare cases, even make use of their veto. According to the talent, interests and abilities of the individual, one can choose between three main options, with increasing demands to them. Therefore, it needs to be said, that in order to choose you have to reach a certain performance, measured in your grade point average at the end of the 4th class.

Regarding the level of performance, the lowest of these three options is the so called „Hauptschule “. It usually lasts from the 5th until the 9th class and is specialized on preparing the pupils for a fast entrance into the general working world. Often pupils visiting this type of school leave it at the age of 15 or 16 to start an apprenticeship. There is however the option to proceed from this type of school to the next higher option for pupils with very good grades. By adding one more year after the 9th class they will therefore be able to get the graduation of the „Realschule“.

The „Realschule“ which represents the second highest level among those three options, lasts from the 5th until the 10th class. Students usually leave it at the age of 16 or 17. It is focused mainly on pupils that want to work in economic matters connected to commerce and mainly office jobs. Surely, attending this type of school does not force you in fields of work, but statistics show that the majority of pupils coming from there are doing it this way. Students however have the possibility to specialize in different ways as well. That is why they can choose between several Elective Courses ranging from e.g. household chores, up to works in the social welfare system.

It is very important to mention at this point, that neither the „Hauptschule“ nor the „Realschule“ provides the allowance for attending an university. Therefore, a graduation at the highest of those three options, the gymnasium, is required.

The Gymnasium, representing the highest level of education among these three options, differs in many ways from the previous forms of schools. Firstly, it lasts from the 5th until the 12th and in some cases even until the 13th grade. Students leaving this type of school will mostly be around the age of 18 or 19. There it is obligatory to learn a second foreign language and to attend chemistry, physics or biology. Like mentioned before this is the only type of school that enables you to attend university. But here it is also important to know that your right to attend certain courses at the university will again be determined by the grade point average on your testimony. The differences in terms of your results that is demanded from the university for different courses of study are enormous. In some courses there is no requirement at all, while in other courses you have to be among the best students of whole Germany in order to get a place.  

Besides those three different types of schools there is also a fourth option, called “Gesamtschule” (comprehensive school) in one single building. Furthermore, it not only combines them in a logistic way, but also in a way that makes the lines between those types of schools permeable which they are otherwise not. This way students have much more freedom to change their type of school and to find the type that fits them the best.

In addition to this factual knowledge one has to have a certain understanding of a deeply ingrained characteristic of German society that causes this very strict system of division. For that matter going to deeply into detail would fail the purpose of this article, but firstly its clear to say that living in a modern German society means to live in a surrounding dominated by materialistic means. Surely this is a trend to be seen all around the world, but especially Germany with its constantly thriving economic power sets the standards fairly high. If there is one thing to be clearly said, then that this is not meant to complain about the economical fortunate situation of Germany in any way, but rather to look at how this high standard affects the society, and in that regard especially the education system as well as the student’s goings through it.

First of all, it has to be considered that this system puts a lot of pressure on students and pupils as well as on their parents. That’s mainly because success in Germany is mostly determined by your level of education. Surely your monthly salary does contribute to this up to a certain level, but a big part of your social status will be determined by the reputation of your profession. A common example for this would be to compare an engineer to a high level manager of a Bank. Both professions have salaries that are above the average, and furthermore require a high level of education, whereas in terms of reputation, both differ a lot. An engineer is a highly respected position among the German society and will lead to a high amount of respect. A manager on the other hand is not seen as trustworthy although salaries in that branch could possibly exceed five digit areas per month. This comparison distinguishes Germany from other countries like e.g. the USA where your social status heavily depends on your annual salary.

Moreover, this is also pressuring the education system itself. This becomes clearest to be seen, by looking at how it has changed over the last century. The first problem of this system of division, that was mentioned at the beginning, is that it further enhances the pressure on pupils in particular. A commonly seen pattern is that especially parents in general push their children very hard in order for them to be at the Gymnasium. This created an enormous rush towards this type of school. About 34% of all students currently attend a Gymnasium. This means that the Gymnasium is the most frequented type of school in Germany, with the ‘Realschule’ following up with 22%.

Gymnasium is therefore being forced to adapt its curriculum. Due to the fact that classes at grammar schools become larger and larger, the attention shifted away from giving a high standard of general knowledge, to a system focused heavily on key figures. Thereby is meant that it has become less important for pupils to really understand something and to connect that knowledge to other subjects, their daily life or even their future profession. More important on the other hand is it to learn almost everything by heart, because it has become the safest way to guaranty success in form of good grades.

Like mentioned further above this is also affecting the highest parts of the education system, universities. In order to enroll at a university, a graduation from Gymnasium is necessary. Because of the Gymnasiums being overcrowded, this trend continues and therefore most academic facilities in Germany are forced to increase their standards of performance further and further. An increasing standard itself might not seem to be a negative aspect in particular, but one consequence of this is that is dramatically increased the competition that exists between students and that it thereby curbs a certain sense of empathy for each other.

The main problem of this, and at the same time, the distinguishing factor compared to the education system of the past on the other hand is that during the 19th and early 20th century these patterns and social notions were different. Surely, this doesn’t mean that everything was better in the old days, but it definitely means that there were huge differences. Success during this time was not seen as something that was necessarily bound to a high level of education among the general population. Rather was it seen as an individual’s ability to perform well in terms of work itself. Conscientiousness itself played a huge role during this time. That caused the exact opposite to happen. Instead of sending their children to school, parents often forbid them to go, in order to be helpful at home and to gain practical experience in family work. It has to be mentioned that the school system during this time also required a certain financial security, average people didn’t have.

This enormous systemic differences have the consequence that due to the strong fixation to academic carriers nowadays Germany as a country faces a giant lack of skilled workers in number of fields of practical work.

It is also important to mention that especially ethnic minorities are affected by this usually very demanding system. Basically all the courses available are given in German and due to the fact that teachers in Germany have a very high salary there is a lack of language courses in German due to a shortage of teachers for minorities with a different mother tongue. This leads to the fact that especially young children of minorities stay behind their possibilities, since the system of division starts very early. This means that in reality very talented and very young pupils with a deficiency of the German language are being divided to a type of school that actually doesn’t fit their talents and abilities. Due to the fact that the principle of comprehensive schools is not very common in Germany these pupils mostly do not have the chance to change it anymore, even if their language skills should improve drastically.

Although none of the different groups, neither teachers, nor students or officials of the education system, that are involved are pleased in any way with the current system. Changes on the other hand will probably not come anytime soon, due to a huge lack of initiative coming from the government. 

 

Galerija slika:

Povratak na Fokus