Print
18. 1. 2020.
12 a KOLIKO SLOBODE ZA TEOLOGIJU OSLOBOĐENJA?
KOLIKO SLOBODE ZA TEOLOGIJU OSLOBOĐENJA?

U vrijeme kada obilježavamo vjerske slobode, građansko pravo koje nam dopušta da vjerujemo i prakticiramo bilo koju religiju za koju se odlučimo, treba se sjetiti kako to pravo nije oduvijek bilo poštovano, a u pojedinim dijelovima svijeta nije ni danas. Ali, zanimljivi su slučajevi kada ograničenje vjerskih sloboda dolazi izvana ali i od vrhova pojedinih vjerskih zajednica. U tom smislu, najzanimljiviji je slučaj Teologije oslobođenja koja je bila cenzurirana ne samo od strane vojnih diktatora već i od same katoličke crkve jer je teologija oslobođenja bila u suprotnosti s njenom hijerarhijom.

Autor: Stefano Cherubini
Prevela: Milica Kuzmanović

Samo nekoliko godina nakon proglašenja neovisnosti Sjedinjenih Američkih Država, 16. siječnja 1786. godine, Opća skupština Virginie, koja je danas najstarije zakonodavno tijelo u Americi, na prijedlog Thomasa Jeffersona usvojila je Statut o vjerskim slobodama. Statut je evoluiraou u prvi amandman Ustava Sjedinjenih Američkih Država koji glasi: „Kongres ne može donositi nikakav zakon o ustanovljenju državne religije, kao ni zakon koji zabranjuje slobodno ispovijedanje vjere (..)“.

Sjedinjene Države bili su pioniri u zaštiti vjerskih sloboda, koje su se uglavnom odnosile na zajednice koje su osnovale vlastitu državu, a koje nisu imale neku većinsku religiju. Ovo pravo je trenutno zaštićeno mnogim međunarodnim ugovorima, a prvi i najvažniji među njima je Opća deklaracija o ljudskim pravima. Ova međunarodna konvencija povijesni je dokument koji je Opća skupština Ujedinjenih naroda usvojila na svom trećem zasjedanju 10. prosinca 1948. godine, kao Rezoluciju 217 i sastoji se od 30 članaka koji potvrđuju prava pojedinaca. Članak 18. posebno štiti ovo pravo: „Svatko ima pravo na slobodu mišljenja, savjesti i vjeroispovijedi; to pravo uključuje slobodu promjene vjeroispovijedi ili uvjerenja i slobodu da pojedinačno ili u zajednici s drugima, javno ili privatno, iskazuje svoju vjeroispovijed ili uvjerenje poučavanjem, bogoslužjem, praktičnim vršenjem i obredima“.

Puno puta u povijesti ljudi nisi bili slobodni izraziti i prakticirati vlastite vjeru. To se događa i danas, iako ne postoji ustanova kao što je bio Sud inkvizicije. Jedan od skorašnjih primjera vjerskog i ideološkog progona je onaj koji su pretrpjele pristalice teologije oslobođenja.

Teologija oslobođenja je katolička teološka struja usklađena s određenim katoličkim stavovima, nastala u Latinskoj Americi. Prema teologiji oslobođenja, Biblija zahtjeva: „prednost za siromašne“. Pristalice teologije oslobođenja koristi metode analize iz humanističkih i društvenih znanosti kako bi odredili na koji način ostvariti ovaj cilj, dok za razliku od teologije koja tradicionalno koristi samo filozofiju kao način tumačenja Biblije.

Većina glavnih ideja i stavova teologije oslobođenja mogu se naći u završnim dokumentima Treće opće konferencije katoličkih biskupa Latinske Amerike i knjigama koje su napisali svećenici koji su prvi zauzeli ove pozicije u kršćansvu i mogu se sažeti kao sljedeće:

1)        Isus je bio okružen siromašnim ljudima i pomagao im je, nije bio prijatelj s političarima i moćnicima.

2)        Kršćansko spasenje ne može postojati bez ekonomskog, političkog, društvenog i ideološkog oslobođenja kao elemenata dostojanstva ljudskog bića.

3)        Oslobađanje kao svijest o društveno-ekonomskoj stvarnosti Latinske Amerike i potrebe za uklanjanje eksploatacije, nedostataka mogućnosti i nepravdi u svijetu.

4)        Trenutna situacija u kojoj se nalaze ljudi u Latinskoj Americi suprotna je onome što je Bog želio za svoj narod, a posljedica je društvenog grijeha.

5)        Ne radi se samo o tome da grešnicima treba oprostiti, veći i o tome da žrtve njihovih grehova zaslužuju pravdu.

Ako razmišljamo o načinu na koji je Isus živio i njegovom učenju, čini se da je prilično blizu tim idejama. U Bibliji se mnogo puta navodi da je poticao bogate da prodaju svoju imovinu i daju je siromašnima kako bi nakon zemaljskog života otišli u raj. Također, svojim apostolima je rekao da prodaju svoja imanja i podjele novac među sobom kako nikome ništa ne bi nedostajalo. Čak je rekao da, ako žele biti njegovi sljedbenici, moraju se odreći svega što imaju. Biblija ga opisuje kao nekoga tko se uvijek protivio nepravdi, moćnima, koji je bio spreman žrtvovati život i patiti za druge.

Biti blizu siromašnih bila je prilično revolucionarna ideja: kako se činilo, katolička crkva bila je izvan takvog konteksta, naročito u Latinskoj Americi gdje je za vreme diktatura 60-ih, 70-ih i 80-ih godina bila jedna od glavnih suučesnica vojnih snaga koje su činile zločine protiv čovječnosti

Režimi vojne diktature koji su vladali tokom tih desetljeća vršile su zločine ne samo protiv ljevičarskih gerilaca, već i protiv onih koji su na neki način bliski i povezani s ljudima u potrebama, siromašnim i marginaliziranim kao što su „Curas Villeros“ u Argentini, svjećenici koji rade u “Favelas” u Brazilu, "Campamentos" u Čileu, u "Pueblos Jovenes" u Peruu. Ove svećenike koji su pripadali različitim katoličkim redovima i koji su samo pokušavali pomoći najugroženijim članovima društva, ljudi na vlasti smatrali su prijetnjom. Kažnjavani su, a ponekad su čak i „nestajali“ jer su bili viđeni kao mogući ljevičari koji vrbuju ljude da se pridruže gerilcima.

Ne samo da su svećenici i pristalice teologije oslobođenja morali trpjeti fizičku represiju i ideološki motiviran progon policije i vojnih snaga, već su bili i žestoko kritizirani pa čak i izravno cenzurirani od strane onih koji su bili na višim hijerarhijskim položajima u katoličkoj crkvi, kao i od strane samog Vatikana.

Tokom osamdesetih godina, papa Ivan Paveo ll zatražio je Kongregaciju za nauk vjere da izrazi svoj stav u pogledu teologije oslobođenja. Kongregacija za nauk vjere jer katolička institucija osnovana radi odbrane crkve od krivovjerja i u prošlost poznata pod imenom inkvizicija, a danas je ovo tijelo odgovorno za objavljivanje i obranu katoličke doktrine. Kongregacija je na zahtjev pape pripremila dva dokumenta: Libertatis Nuntius 1984. godine, fokusiran na oslobođenje kao takvo i Libertatis Conscientia 1986. godine, fokusiran na katoličku slobodu i oslobođenje.

Prema ovim dokumentima Teologija oslobađanja nastala je na temelju koncepata marksizma i svećenici, teolozi i vjernici bi trebali biti vrlo oprezni s njom. U dokumentima je istaknuto kako zlo nije samo u ekonomiji, društvenim ili političkim strukturama te da stvaranje ''novog čovjeka'' neće doći kroz promjene tih struktura. Zlo dolazi od slobodnih i odgovornih ljudi i oni trebaju mijenjati sebe same pronalazeći odgovor u Isusu Kristu, a ne u promjenama tih struktura.

Libertatis Nuntius također smatra da se teologija oslobođenja temelji u klasnom ratu kao pokretaču povijesti. Ta ideja je opasna jer politička ideja postaje važnija Boga što je kroz povijest značilo poricanje Novog zavjeta i Isusa Krista, Boga kroz kojeg dolazi istinsko oslobođenje od grijeha.

Najočigledniji primjer progona ovih ideja od strane katoličke crkve dogodio se 1985. godine, kada je Kongregacija za nauk vjere izdala obavijest u kojoj je kritizirala knjigu Leonadra Boffa, svećenika i pripadnika teologije oslobođenja: „Crkva: karizma i snaga. Suđenje militantnoj ekleziologiji“. Ali nakon kritike Kongregacija je odredila kako Boffa treba ostati u „dobrovoljnoj tišini“, što znači da neće moći sudjelovati u aktivnostima poput pisanja ili predavanja, što je bio očiti čin cenzure koji je izravno utjecao na njegovu slobodu govora.

Papa Franjo, koji je u prošlosti bio tzv. „Cura Villero“ i bio povezan s najsiromašnijim i marginaliziranim u Buenos Airesu je kasnije radikalno je promijenio odnos katoličke crkve prema tom pitanju. Učinio je to kroz susrete s mnogima od najznačajnijih teologa koji pripadaju teologiji oslobođenja i kroz povlačenje suspenzije svećeniku Miguelu d'Escotu iz Nikaragve koju mu je ranije izrekao papa Ivan Pavao II zbog njegove povezanosti s ljevičarskom sandinističkom vladom Nikaragve.

Dolazeći iz skromnih okolnosti, papa Franje je uvijek kritizirao socijalne razlike i one koji ih potiču. U brojnim prilikama govorio je o sadašnjim podjelama u svijetu kao što su ''razlika između luksuza bogatih i bijede siromašnih'' kao i o diskriminaciji zasnovanoj na nacionalnoj odnosno etničkoj pripadnosti i pozivao sve da se bore protiv njih.

Na isti način papa Franjo, i nakon što je postao najviši autoritet unutar katoličke crkve, uvijek je odlazio kod onih koji su najviše u potrebi i najviše marginalizirani. Primjer za to je papin posjet Rumunjskoj kada je 2. lipnja 2019. godine posjetio romsku zajednicu u mjestu Blaj. Od prisutnih je zatražio oprost za sve što su katolici učinili protiv Roma kao posebno marginalizirane manjine.

Tada je izjavio: ''... nosim teret na srcu. To je teret diskriminacije, segregacije i zlodjela koje je pretrpila vaša zajednica. Povjest nam govori da kršćanima i katolicima nisu strana sva ova zla. Želim se ispričiti zbog toga. U ime [katoličke] crkve molim za oprost od Boga i od vas, jer smo vas kroz povjest diskriminirali, zlostavljali ili vas gledali na pogrešan način, očima Kaina, a ne očima Abela. Nismo bili u stanju prepoznati i cijeniti i braniti vas i vašu jedinstvenost“.

Na godišnjem sastanku Međunarodnog katoličkog odbora za Rome (CCIT - Comité Catholique International pour les Tsiganes) održana je od 28. do 30. ožujka 2008. godine Konferencija u Trogiru, u Hratskoj. Vezano za potrebu uključivanja romskih zajednica u crkvu, posebno u katoličanstvo, dr Gernot Haupt pozvao je na promjenu „teologije oslobođenja“ u „teologiju oslobođenja Roma“ koja će otkriti ljudsko dostojanstvo onima koji su gurnuti na margine društva i spasiti i naše dostojanstvo“. On je zasnovao svoj stav na tome da se ideje, koje su odigrale emancipatorsku ulogu u Latinskoj Americi, mogu koristiti u Europi za borbu protiv diskriminacije Roma i njihovo uključivanje u društvo.

On je usredotočio na nužnost promjene struktura koje promiču izuzeće, kao što ih je Isus mijenjao s gubavcima, dotičući ih kako bi ih spasio čak i kad nije trebao jer ih je svećenik prvo trebao pregledati. Takvim odnosom prema gubavcima Krist je doveo u pitanje dotadašnji status quo i tako dao primjer kako se odnositi prema marginaliziranim ljudima i prihvaćajući ih jednakima sebi, a to je ono na šta dr. Haupt potiče katolička društva.

 

 

 

On this day in which we celebrate Religious Freedom, the civil right that allows us to follow and practice any religion that we decide to, it is neccesary to remember that this right has not always been respected and still is not in many parts of the world. An interesting case is when the restriction of religious freedom comes from outside as well as from the leadership of particular religious communities. An interesting case in this regard is a Liberation Theology, which got censored not only by local military dictatorships, but also by the Catholic Church itself, as it was in opposition with the higher ranks of it.

 

On January 16, 1786, just some years after the Declaration of independence of the United States of America, the Virginia General Assembly, which today is the oldest continuous law-making body in America, adopted Thomas Jefferson’s landmark Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. The Statute evolved into the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights of the US Constitution stating: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof (…)”

Even though the United States were the pioneers in the protection of Religious Freedom, which is mostly due to the fact that to the communities which founded the country not having one majoritarian religion, this right is currently protected by many international treaties, like The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This international convention is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 and consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights. Article 18 is the one which specifically protects this right, by stating: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.” Continuing with the international recognition of this right, it has also been protected by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 23 March 1976.

Throughout history there were many times when people were not free to express and practice their own religions. This still happens nowadays, even though there might not be institutions such as the Inquisition Tribunal. One recent example of religious and ideological persecution is the one suffered by the Liberation Theology supporters.

The Liberation Theology is a Catholic theological current conformed by different catholic positions, which was born in Latin America and considers that the Bible demands the “preferential option for the poor”, it also uses analytical methods from human and social sciences in order to determinate how to achieve this goal, unlike theology that has traditionally used philosophy as its main approach of interpretation of the Bible.

Most of the main ideas and positions of the Liberation Theology can be found in the final document drafted by the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate (Catholic) and books written by priests that were the pioneers of this position of Christianism and can be summarized as the following:

Jesus was surrounded by poor people and helped them, he was not friends with politicians or the powerful ones;
Christian salvation cannot exist without economic, political, social and ideological liberation, as elements of the dignity of the human being.
Liberation as the awareness of Latin American socioeconomic reality and the need to eliminate exploitation, lack of opportunities and unfairness in the world.
The current situation of people in Latin America contradicts what God wanted for his people and is the consequence of a social sin.
There are not only sinners to be forgiven, but also victims of those sins who need justice and restauration

If we think about the way that Jesus lived and what he taught, it seems to be quite close to these ideas. The Bible states many times that he encouraged the rich to sell their assets and give them to the poor ones in order to make it to Heaven, he also told his apostles to sell their properties and to share the money among themselves for anyone not to ever lack of anything. He even said that in order to be one of his followers it was necessary to give up to everything they possessed. The Bible describes him as someone who always stood up against injustice, against the powerful ones and who did not doubt about giving up his life and suffering for the others.

The idea of being close to poor people was quite revolutionary in a context where the Catholic Church seemed to be quite far from that position. In Latin America during the dictatorships of the 60’, 70’ and 80´ it was one of the main accomplices of the military forces which were perpetrating crimes against humanity.

The military dictatorships which ruled the region during those decades were perpetrating atrocities not only against leftist guerrillas, but to anyone who was somehow close or connected to the ones in need, to the poor people, to the marginalized ones such as the “Curas Villeros” in Argentina, the priests working in the Brazilian “Favelas”, in the Chilean “Campamentos”, in the “Pueblos Jovenes” in Peru, etc. These priests who belonged to different Catholic orders, who were only trying to help the most vulnerable members of society, were seen as a threat by those in power, and as possible leftists which were recruiting people to join the guerrillas and therefore deserved to be punished and even sometimes “disappeared”. 

Not only did the priests and supporters of the Liberation Theology have to suffer the physical repression and ideological persecution of the police and military forces, but they were also heavily criticized and even sometimes directly censored by the ones in the higher hierarchical position in the Catholic Church and by the Vatican itself.

During the 80’s Pope John Paul II requested the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the organ founded to defend the church from heresy during Inquisition, which is today the body responsible for promulgating and defending Catholic doctrine, to express their position regarding the Liberation Theology. They drafted two documents: Libertatis Nuntius (focused in Liberation as such) in 1984 and Libertatis Conscientia (focused in Catholic Freedom and Liberation) in 1986.

These documents consider that Liberation Theology was created using concepts from Marxism, and that priests, theologians and believers should be very careful with it. They also stated that evil cannot be only found in economic, social or political structures, and that the creation of a “new man” would come from changing these structures. This idea of a “new man” in the Liberation Theology was centered in the thought that the integral liberation of men, a liberation of sin, a social liberation and a liberation of nature and cosmos would create a complete new man with characteristics closer to those possessed by Jesus Christ himself. As evil comes from the free and responsible people, the documents state they should change themselves finding answers in Jesus Christ, not by changing these structures.

The Libertatis Nuntius also considers that the Liberation Theology is based on class struggle as the history engine. This idea is dangerous because the political dimension becomes more important than God himself which, throughout history, has meant the denial of the New Testament and of Jesus Christ, God, who is the true liberation (of sin).

The most obvious exercise by the Catholic Church of persecution of these ideas was made in 1985, where the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a notification criticizing the book written by Leonardo Boff, priest and theologian of the Liberation Theology: “Church: charisma and power. Trial of militant ecclesiology”. And after criticizing the Congregation also determining that he should remain in “voluntary silence” meaning that he would not be able to participate in activities such as writing or lecturing, in an obvious act of censorship directly affecting his freedom of speech.

Pope Francis, who used to be a “Cura Villero”, involved with the most poor and marginalized in Buenos Aires, has been the one who has radically changed the Catholic Church’s position regarding this matter. He did so by meeting with many of the most important theologians of the Liberation Theology and by withdrawing the suspension that the Nicaraguan priest, Miguel d'Escoto, had received by Pope John Paul II for his links with the Sandinista leftist Government.

Coming from a humble background himself, Pope Francis has always been criticizing social differences and the ones who encourage them. On more than one occasion, he has spoken about the current existing world divisions such as “the distance between the luxury of the richest against the misery of the poorest ones” and discrimination based on either nationality or ethnicity, calling for everyone to fight them.

In the same way, Pope Francis, even after becoming the supreme authority in the Catholic Church, has always gathered among the most needed and marginalized communities. An example of this took place the 2nd of June, 2019 in Blaj, Rumania when he visited a Roma community to ask for forgiveness for everything that Catholics have done to this marginalized minority.

He said “(…) I carry a weight in my heart. It is the weight of discrimination, of segregations, of the abuses suffered by your communities. The history tell us that Christians, also Catholics, are no strangers to all of this evil. I would like to apologize for that. I ask for forgiveness, in name of the [Catholic] Church to God and to you, because throughout history we have been discriminating you, abusing you, or looking at you in a wrong way, with the eyes of Cain and not those of Abel, and we have not been capable of recognizing you, valuing you and defending you in your singularity.” 

The Conference for the annual meeting of the International Catholic Committee for Gypsies (CCIT - Comité Catholique International pour les Tsiganes) was held from the 28 to 30 of March of 2008 in Trogir, Croatia. Regarding this need of inclusion of Roma communities in Church and specifically in Catholicism, Dr. Gernot Haupt called for a change of “The Theology of Liberation” into a “Theology for the Liberation of the Roma” which will reveal human dignity to those shifted to the margins of society and save our own dignity”. He based his presentation on the ideas that played an emancipatory role in Latin America to be used in Europe to fight discrimination against Roma people and to include them in society.

He concentrated on the necessity of changing those structures which promote exclusion, such as Jesus did with the lepers, by touching them to save them even when he was not supposed to, as a priest should first have examined them. Christ challenged the status quo through this attitude towards the lepers, and thus gave example of how to treat marginalized people as equals, and that is what Dr. Haupt encourages Catholic societies to do.