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Print - VASILICA U BUGARSKOJ

U SUSRET VASILICI

13. 1. 2020.
VASILICA U BUGARSKOJ

Vasilica ili Vasildan jedan je on najvažnijih, ako ne i najvažniji praznik Roma u Bugarskoj. Ovaj praznik poznat je još i kao Bango Vasili, što u doslovnom prijevodu znači hrom Vasili. Romske obitelji ovaj praznik obilježavaju 14. siječnja, s posebnim iščekivanjem i predanošću. U nekoliko regija u Bugarskoj, Vasilica se obilježava tri dana, 13., 14. i 15. siječnja.

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Različite tradicionalne priče povezane su s romskim obilježavanjem Vasilice u Bugarskoj. Kršćanska svetkovina svetog Vasilija koja se obilježava 14. siječnja prema Julijanskom kalendaru leži u srcu podrijetla blagdana. Mnogi Romi u Bugarskoj Svetog Vasilija poštuju kao svog predstavnika i zaštitnika. Prema jednoj priči, on je popravio most koji je vrag uništio i pomagao onima koji su upali u vodu Romani. Prema drugom predanju, Bango Vasili je hrom pastir koji je spasio romskog dječaka koji se davio. S Vasilicom je povezan i mit o jatu gusaka koje su spasile Rome od egipatske vojske odvodeći ih preko Crvenog mora.

Na planu gastronomije, Vasili je, kao i svuda na Balkanu, usredotočen na ptice. Romi u Bugarskoj imaju različita omiljena jela, od gusaka i pataka do pijetlova. Na okruglom stolu za posebnu prigodu nalaze se i sarme, burek, ukrašen domaći kruh sa simbolima zdravlja i sreće, vino, rakija i drugi prilozi specifični za Balkan, kao što su riža i pšenica.

Večera 13. siječnja je veoma značajan dio tradicije. Bango Vasil, kao praznik posebno usredotočen na važnost obitelji, slavi se kod kuće. Običaj zahtijeva da za vrijeme večere pa sve do ponoći vrata budu zaključana i niko ne smije ući ili izaći. To je jedna od rijetkih prilika kada Romi nisu gostoljubivi kao inače. Večera obično počinje kađenjem i blagoslovom hrane. Članovi obitelji jedni drugima daju oprost i tada se kruh lomi i dijeli, tako da svatko može potražiti neki od simbola zdravlja i sreće za godinu koja dolazi.

U ponoć je Vasilica već stigla i time počinje Nova godina. Od tog trenutka 'survakane' može početi. Survakane je obred u kojem najmlađi članovi obitelji lagano potapšu ostale članove po leđima survaknicom, ukrašenom, zakrivljenom drenovom grančicom, istovremeno recitirajući kratak stih kojim svom srodniku želi sve najbolje za Novu godinu. Nakon toga, djeca dobivaju voće, grickalice, slatkiše ili malo novca.

Prvi gost koji bi 14. siječnja ušao u dom ima poseban simbolični značaj. Vjeruje se da će sljedeća godina imati karakter kakav ima prvi gost. Svima koji danas slave Vasilicu želimo da imaju samo dobre i ljubazne goste cijele 2020. godine!

 

 

Vasilitsa or Vasiliovden is one of the most, if not the most, important holidays for Roma in Bulgaria. Popularly known also as Bango Vasily (literally – the limping Vasily), this celebration is marked by Roma families on January 14th with a distinct anticipation and devotion. In several regions in Bulgaria, Bango Vasily lasts for three days – January 13th, 14th and 15th.

The Roma celebration of Vasiliovden in Bulgaria is associated with various different traditional stories. The Christian feast of Saint Basil marked on January 14th according to the Julian calendar, however, lies in the heart of the holiday’s origin. Saint Basil is revered by many Roma in Bulgaria as their patron and protector.  According to one story, he repaired a bridge destroyed by the devil and helped the fallen in the Romani water. In another tale, Bango Vasily is a limping shepherd who rescued a drowning Roma boy. Related with Vasiliovden is also the myth of a flock of geese who saved the Roma from the Egyptian army by taking them across the Red Sea.  

On a gastronomical note, Vasilitsa, like everywhere around the Balkans, is bird-focused. The various Roma groups in Bulgaria have different preferences from goose and duck to rooster. On the table for this special occasion there are also cabbage rolls (sarma), banitsa (burek), decorated home-made bread with fortunes, wine, rakia, and other regional additions such as rice and wheat.   

The dinner on January 13th is a rather significant part of the tradition. Bango Vasily, as a holiday particularly centered on the importance of the family, is celebrated at home. The custom requires that during the dinner and until midnight the doors should be locked and no one should be let in or out. That is one of the rare occasions when the Roma withdraw their proverbial hospitality. The dinner usually begins with incense and a blessing of the food. The members of the family give each other forgiveness and then the bread is broken and divided, so that everyone can discover their fortune for the coming year.

At midnight Vasiliovden has already come and with it the New Year begins. From that moment on, the survakane can begin. Survakane is a ritual in which the youngest members of the family lightly pat the back of others with a survaknitsa, a decorated curled branch of a cornel tree, while reciting a short verse wishing their relative well for the New Year. Afterwards, the children are given snacks, candy, or small amounts of money.

The first guest who would enter the family’s home on January 14th is of particular symbolic significance. It is believed that the following year will have the character of this earliest visitor. We wish everyone who is celebrating today to have only nice and kind guests during the whole 2020!  

 

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