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23. 3. 2020.
39 a CEFERINO - PRVI ROM BLAŽENIK
CEFERINO - PRVI ROM BLAŽENIK

Tokom španjolskog građanskog rata, višestrukih borbi između pripadnika različitih klasa, religija, sukoba suprotstavljenih nacionalizama, borbi između vojne diktature i republikanske demokracije, između revolucije i kontrarevolucije, između fašizma i komunizma, izgubljeno je više od pola milijuna života. Jedna od tih žrtava bio je Ceferino Giménez Malla, Rom iz Španjolske, rimokatolički vjeroučitelj i aktivist za prava španjolskih Roma. Također, poznat je i pod nadimkom "El Pelé". Ceferino Giménez Malla bio je prvi Rom koji je proglašen blaženikom.

Španjolski građanski rat trajao je od 1936. godine do 1939. godine. Republikanci, odani lijevo orijentiranoj Drugoj španjolskoj republici, u savezu s anarhistima, komunistima i raznim sindikatima, borili su se protiv pobune nacionalista, odnosno Saveza falangista (desničarske političke stranke), monarhista, konzervativaca i katolika, predvođenih skupinom visokih časnika, u kojoj je general Francisco Franco ubrzo preuzeo vodeću ulogu. Nakon pobjede nacionalističke strane, Franco je postao vođa diktature, i nastavio upravljati Španjolskom sve do svoje smrti, 1975. godine.

Republikanska milicija (revolucionari) ustrijelila je Ceferina 9. kolovoza 1936. godine, u gradu Barbastro u Španjolskoj, zajedno s još 18 ljudi, uglavnom svećenika i vjernika. Ceferino je bio skroman čovjek, a mnogi su ga opisali kao dobru osobu koja nije imala aktivan stav prema građanskom ratu. Imao je priliku odreći se vjere i spasiti svoj život, ali prije nego što je ubijen, podigao je svoju brojanicu i povikao: "Živio Kralj Krist!".

Ceferino Giménez Malla uhićen je 15 dana prije pogubljenja jer je, kad je vidio kako revolucionari odvode i napadaju svećenika, povikao: "Kukavice! Treba vam toliko ljudi da svećenika stavite u zatvor?”

Nakon što mu je milicija ispraznila džepove i pronašla brojanicu, Ceferino je, zajedno sa svećenikom kojeg je branio, odveden u improvizirani zatvor, Kapucinski samostan, u kojem je već bilo 350 zatočenika. Njegova posvojena kći, Pepita, svakodnevno mu je donosila hranu u zatvor. U zatvoru su se svi molili, a kako je Ceferino bio neumoran u molitvi, postao je predvodnik zatočenike. Tamničari su se zbog toga jako naljutili, a mnogi zatvorenici savjetovali su ga da bude diskretniji i "oprezniji".

Kako je vodio skroman život, i nije imao značajan politički utjecaj, njegova obitelj zatražila je od Eugenia Sopene, utjecajnog anarhiste i člana Revolucionarnog odbora, da ga oslobode. Sopena je dao sve od sebe kako bi ga oslobodio, ali rečeno mu je kako Ceferino utječe na druge zatvorenike potičući ih u vjeri. Sopena i kći Pepita zamolili su ga da se odrekne brojanice i da ne skreće pažnju na svoje katoličanstvo, ali ih on nije poslušao. Nikada se nije bio spreman odreći svojih vjerskih uvjerenja, čak i po cijenu života. Tako je i bilo.

Ceferino Giménez Malla proglašen je blaženim od strane pape Ivana Pavla II, 4. svibnja 1997. godine. Papa Ivan Pavao II rekao je kako je Ceferino "znao posijati sklad i solidarnost, kao i posredovati u sukobima koji ponekad narušavaju odnose među Romima i osobama neromskih nacionalnosti, pokazujući time kako Kristova ljubav ne poznaje razlike među rasama i kulturama." Otprilike 3000 Roma prisustvovalo je ceremoniji beatifikacije u Rimu, od kojih su neki putovali čak iz Slovačke i Brazila. Ceferino Giménez Malla je bio prvi romski mučenik koji je bio proglašen blaženikom.

"El Pelé" rođen je u obitelji Roma katolika, od oca Juana Jiméneza i majke Josefe Mallae, ili u Benaventu de Segriá, Lleida ili u Alcolea de Cinca, u Španjolskoj. Izvori se razlikuju o tome je li rođen 1861. godine ili 1865. godine. Kršten je u Fragi, u provinciji Huesca. Njegov otac bio je trgovac stokom. Obitelj je zimu obično provodila na farmama, na mjestima koja su im seljaci pripremili, ili su iznajmljivali kolibe na nekoliko mjeseci. Ceferino je često gladovao. Prateći svog oca postao je poznavalac katalonskog i romskog jezika. Oko 1880. godine, njegov otac napustio je obitelj, te se obitelj preselila u Barbastro. Tamo je Ceferino od strica učio plesti košare. Kada mu je bilo oko dvadeset godina oženio se Teresom Jiménez Castro. Vjenčanje je održano u skladu s tradicionalnim romskim običajima. Bili su u sretnom braku četrdeset godina. Nisu imali djece, ali su se brinuli o njegovoj mlađoj braći i sestrama. Oko 1909. godine usvojili su Teresinu nećakinju Pepitu, koja je bila siroče. Giménez Malla i njegova supruga Tereza 1912. godine sklopili su brak i u skladu s običajima katoličke crkve i kupili kuću u gradu Huescan, u Barbastrou. Tereza je umrla 1922. godine.

Poznat po svojoj iskrenosti, Ceferino je postao vođa romske zajednice u Barbastro i okolice. Ljudi su mu se obraćali za savjete i tražili da posreduje u obiteljskim svađama. Također, riješio je sporove između Roma i Španjolaca.

Bio je čovjek koji se zalagao za svoja vjerska uvjerenja, čak do te mjere da je žrtvovao svoj život zbog tih uvjerenja. Caferino je primjer kako duhovnost ne poznaje razlike između boje kože, jezika, nacionalnosti ili etničke pripadnosti. Ceferinov život i njegova hrabrost trebali primjer su na kojem shvaćamo važnost tolerancije u cilju ostvarivanja ravnopravnosti i pravde u društvu. Takva snažna gesta i žrtva ne smiju biti uzaludni.

 

 

During the Spanish Civil War, a multifaceted conflict of class struggle, war of religion, confrontation of opposing nationalisms, struggle between military dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism, there were over half a million lives lost. One of those victims was a Roma from Spain, a Roman Catholic catechist and activist for Spanish Romani causes named Ceferino Giménez Malla, also known as “El Pelé”. He was the first Roma to have been beatified.

The Spanish Civil War was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists, conservatives and Catholics, led by a military group among whom General Francisco Franco soon achieved a preponderant role. After the victory of the Nationalist side, Franco became the leader of the dictatorship which ruled Spain until his death, in 1975.

On a 9 of August of 1936, the militiamen of the Republican side (the revolutionaries), shot him in the town of Barbastro, in Spain, along with 18 other people, mostly priests and believers. He was a humble man, described by many as a good person, who had no active position in regarding the civil war. He had the opportunity to deny his faith and save his life but, before the execution squad, he raised his rosary and shouted: "Long live Christ the King!"

He had been arrested 15 days before that because when he saw that the revolutionaries were taking away and attacking a priest he yelled at them: “Cowards! You need so many people to put a priest into jail?”

The militiamen emptied his pockets, finding a rosary. He was taken, with the priest, to an impromptu jail: the Capuchin convent, where there were already 350 detainees. His adopted daughter, Pepita, brought food for him to jail every day. In prison, everyone prayed, but Pele was tireless in prayer, and became a leader of faith for the detainees. The jailers were very angry with that and many of the prisoners advised him to be more discreet and "prudent."

As he had a humble life, not being a figure of an important political influence, his family asked Eugenio Sopena, an influential anarchist of the Revolutionary Committee, to release him. Sopena did his best, but he was told that Ceferino was influencing other prisoners from a religious point of view. Both Sopena and Pepita asked him to give up his rosary and not to show himself as such a Catholic person, but he never listened to them. He would never give up his religious beliefs, not even if it costed his life. And so it did.

On May 4, 1997 Ceferino Giménez Malla was beatified by Pope John Paul II who said that Malla "knew how to sow harmony and solidarity among his own, also mediating conflicts that sometimes blur the relationship between non-Roma and Roma, showing Christ's love knows no boundaries of race or culture." Approximately 3,000 Roma attended the beatification ceremony in Rome, some travelling from as far away as Slovakia and Brazil. He was the first Romani martyr to have been beatified.

“El Pelé” was born to Juan Jiménez and Josefa Malla, a Catholic Romani family, in either Benavent de Segriá, Lleida or in Alcolea de Cinca, Spain. Sources differ as to whether the year was 1861 or 1865. He was baptized in Fraga, Huesca Province. His father was a cattle-trader. The family usually waited out the winter on farms in places farmers set aside for them, or else they rented a cottage for a few months. Ceferino often went hungry. Accompanying his father, he became conversant in Catalan as well as Roma language. Around 1880 his father abandoned the family and they went to Barbastro, where his uncle taught Ceferino to weave wicker baskets. About the age of twenty, he married Teresa Jiménez Castro according to a traditional Roma ceremony. They were happily married for forty years. They had no children, but looked after his younger brothers and sisters. Around 1909 they adopted Teresa's orphaned niece, Pepita. In 1912, Giménez Malla and his wife Teresa solemnized their marriage in a Catholic ceremony, and bought a house in the Huescan town of Barbastro. Teresa died in 1922.

Known for his honesty, Ceferino became something of a leader in the Roma community of Barbastro and the surrounding area. People would seek him out for advice, and to mediate family quarrels. He also resolved disputes between Romani and Spanish people.

He has been a man that stood up for his religious beliefs, even to the point of giving up his life for them. He is an example that spirituality knows no difference between skin color, language, nationality or ethnicity. We should understand his life and his bravery as examples that tolerance it is needed in order to have equality and justice among our society. Such a powerful gesture and sacrifice must not be in vain.