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21. 8. 2021.
21 a LORCA I ROMI
LORCA I ROMI

Federico García Lorca može se nedvojbeno smatrati najpoznatijom i najkultniji španjolskom književnom osobom 20. stoljeća. Njegovo djelo u poeziji, dramskom stvaralaštvu i kazališnoj režiji utvrđeno je kao jedinstven doprinos modernoj književnosti, neprepoznat čak i dugo nakon njegove smrti. Kako se ove godine obilježava 85. obljetnica Lorcinog ubojstva fašističkih snaga, ukratko istražujemo njegov život, posvećenost, borbu, kreativnost i umjetnički sjaj.

Autor: José Alarcón Matás
Prijevod: Melike Sariguel

Lorca je rođen 1898. godine u Fuente Vaquerosu, selu u južnoj pokrajini Granada, Španjolska. Bio je dio relativno bogate obitelji jer mu je otac bio zemljoposjednik. S 11 godina preselio se s obitelji u grad Granadu, a sa 17 godina nastavio je studirati filozofiju na sveučilištu. S obzirom na svoje vještine u klaviru, ozbiljno je razmišljao o tome da se otprilike u to vrijeme upusti u glazbenu karijeru, koju je na kraju prepustio hobiju. U to je vrijeme počeo pisati, pod velikim utjecajem pisaca poput Goethea, Shakespearea, Machada i Rubéna Daría.

Godine 1919. preselio se u Madrid i živio u Residencia de Estudiantes, studentskoj dvorani poznatoj po progresivnim linijama i kao središtu kulturnog života. Tamo se sprijateljio s redateljem Luisom Buñuelom i umjetnikom Salvadorom Dalíjem, a svoje je pisanje razvio zajedno s Juanom Ramónom Jiménezom. Godine 1921. objavio je svoju prvu pjesničku zbirku ''Libro de Poemas'', gdje se bavio temama introspekcije, religije i vjere. Za vrijeme boravka u Residenciji radio je rame uz rame s poznatim pjesnicima, poput Rafaela Albertija, Pedra Salinasa i Jorgea Guilléna. Ovi pjesnici i brojni drugi pisci postali bi poznati kao grupa pod nazivom Generación del 27 (generacija 1927), u odnosu na 300. godišnjicu rođenja književnika Luisa de Góngore. Ovu je grupu definirala ponovna pozornost na politička i društvena pitanja, progresivna književnost i književni avangardnost.

Zapravo, Lorca je bio prilično svjestan pitanja poput klasne nejednakosti, siromaštva i rasne nepravde, što je odražavao u brojnim svojim pjesmama. Na primjer, njegova pjesma Poet in New York, objavljena nakon njegove smrti, ispitivala je neosobnu i otuđenu prirodu grada, nudeći kritiku industrijalizacije i kapitalizma. Lorca je tokom svog života također bio prisiljen skrivati svoju homoseksualnost u vrijeme u kojem bi se to percipiralo kao izopačenost. Njegova razmišljanja o romskoj manjini, njezinom društvenom položaju i kulturnoj baštini sastavljena su u Romancero Gitano (Ciganske balade, 1928) i Poema del Cante Jondo (Poema duboke pjesme, 1931), pridonijeli su boljem razumijevanju romske stvarnosti u Španjolskoj. Lorca svojim stihovima također predstavlja romske likove kao bezvremenska i univerzalna bića, pokušavajući izraziti beskonačni karakter ljudske borbe koja definira povijest Roma kao potlačenog naroda. Zapravo, opisao je Rome kao ‘’najčišći, najuzvišeniji u mojoj zemlji; najreprezentativniji u svom načinu života koji čuva vatru, krv i abecedu andaluzijske i univerzalne istine.'' Na ovaj je način Lorca identificirala jedinstven doprinos Roma u oblikovanju španjolske i andaluzijske kulture. Ti su stavovi, koji su u to vrijeme bili vrlo neuobičajeni, bili od velike važnosti za vizibilizaciju Roma kao naroda vrijednog dostojanstva i poštovanja.

Lorcina uloga u revitalizaciji kazališta također je bila od presudne važnosti. Njegova djela Bodas de Sangre (Krvavo vjenčanje, 1933. godine), Yerma (1934. godine) i La Casa de Bernarda Alba (Kuća Bernarde Albe, konačna verzija objavljena posthumno 1945. godine) nude, kroz prikazane andaluzijske ruralne drame, poetska tumačenja tema poput kao ljubav, smrt, potiskivanje, želja i društvena kritika.

Ubrzo nakon početka Španjolskog građanskog rata, nacionalističke snage Francisca Franca 16. kolovoza uhitile su Lorcu u Granadi. Ili je 18. ili 19. kolovoza (datum još uvijek nije jasan) ustrijeljen i ubijen. Njegovo tijelo položeno je u zajedničku grobnicu, a njegovo mjesto ostaje nepoznato do danas. Sada je općenito priznat kao izravna žrtva fašizma, a njegovo sjećanje na borbu i umjetničko stvaranje ostalo je vidljivo lice španjolske književne baštine.

 

 

Federico García Lorca can arguably be considered the most iconic and well-known Spanish literary figure of the 20th century. His work in poetry, playwriting and theatre directing is established as a unique contribution to modern literature, unrecognized until a long time after his death. As this year marks the 85th anniversary since Lorca’s assassination in the hands of Fascist forces, we briefly explore his life, one of dedication, struggle, creativity and artistic brilliance.

Lorca was born in 1898 in Fuente Vaqueros, a village in the Southern province of Granada, Spain. He was part of a relatively wealthy family as his father was a landowner. At the age of 11, he moved with his family to the city of Granada, and went on to study philosophy at university when he was 17. Given his skills in the piano, he seriously considered embarking on a musical career around that time, which eventually he relegated into a hobby. He began writing also at this time, heavily influenced by writers such as Goethe, Shakespeare, Machado and Rubén Darío.

In 1919 he moved to Madrid and lived at Residencia de Estudiantes, a student’s hall known for its progressive lines and for being a centre of cultural life. There he became friends with director Luis Buñuel and artist Salvador Dalí, and developed his writing together with Juan Ramón Jiménez. In 1921, he published his first poetry collection ‘’Libro de Poemas’’, where he addressed topics of introspection, religion and faith. During his time in Residencia, he worked side by side with well-known poets, such as Rafael Alberti, Pedro Salinas and Jorge Guillén. These poets and a number of other writers would become known as a group called Generación del 27 (1927 Generation), in reference to the 300th anniversary of writer Luis de Góngora’s birth. This group was defined by a renewed attention to political and social issues, progressive literature and literary vanguardism.

 In fact, Lorca was quite aware himself of issues such as class inequality, poverty and racial injustice, which he reflected in a number of his poems. For example, his book poem Poet in New York, published after his death, examined the impersonal and alienated nature of the city, offering a critique of industrialisation and capitalism. Throughout his life, Lorca was also forced to conceal his homosexuality at a time where this would be perceived as a perversion. His reflections on the Roma minority, its social position and cultural heritage compiled in Romancero Gitano (Gypsy Ballads, 1928) and Poema del Cante Jondo (Poem of the Deep Song, 1931), contributed to a greater understanding of Roma reality in Spain. Through his verses, Lorca also presents Roma characters as timeless and universal beings, attempting to express the inifinite character of human struggle that defines the history of Roma as an oppressed people. In fact, he described Roma as ‘’the purest, most elevated of my country; the most representative of its way of life, which preserves the fire, blood and alphabet of the Andalusian and universal truth.’’ This way, Lorca identified the unique contribution of Roma in shaping Spanish and Andalusian culture. These views, highly uncommon at the time, were of great importance in visibilizing Roma as a people worthy of dignity and respect.

Lorca’s role in revitalising theatre was also of crucial importance. His works Bodas de Sangre (Blood Wedding, 1933), Yerma (1934) and La Casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba, final version published posthumously in 1945) offer, through depicted Andalusian rural dramas, poetic interpretations of themes such as love, death, repression, desire and social critique.

Shortly after the Spanish Civil War began, Lorca was arrested in Granada by the Nationalist forces of Francisco Franco on August 16th. Either on August 18th or 19th (the date is still unclear) he was shot and killed. His body was deposited on a common grave and its location remains unknown until this day. He is now widely recognised as a direct victim of Fascism, and his memory of struggle and artistic creation remain a visible face of Spanish literary heritage.