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Print - NASILJE NIJE ODGOVOR

MIRNO BRANIMO LJUDSKA PRAVA

2. 10. 2022.
099 - photy by kirill unabridged via flickr NASILJE NIJE ODGOVOR
Photy by Kirill Unabridged via Flickr
NASILJE NIJE ODGOVOR
Autorica: Galina Ziabkina
Prijevod: Antonia Mudrovčić

Problemi etničke diskriminacije, kao i problemi nasilja u društvu u cjelini, imaju više strana: fizičku, ekonomsku, psihičku, pravnu itd. Posljednja stoljeća bila su rekordna po razmjerima i intenzitetu nasilja u svijetu, kao i po količini krvi prolivene u ratovima, pobunama i revolucijama. Romi svjedoče o tome, pogotovo nakon porajmosa. Poput ostalih pripadnika nacionalnih manjina i osoba iz socijalno ugroženih skupina, Romi se i danas često svakodnevno susreću s različitim oblicima diskriminacije i nasilja.

Doista, ne postoji nešto poput korisnog, dobrog ili prikladnog nasilja. Niti ima plemenitu svrhu. Nasilje nikad ne pomaže, a diskriminacija koči razvoj društva u cjelini. Nasilje u bilo kojem obliku je strašno. I nijedno živo biće nema pravo povrijediti ili maltretirati drugo živo biće.

Neki se pojedinci bore protiv nasilja. Drugi pokušavaju "razumjeti i oprostiti". Mahatma Gandhi, čovjek koji je posvetio svoj život kako bi mirnim putem okončao rasnu, kastinsku i etničku diskriminaciju, poznat je po potonjem. Bio je filozof, politički i društveni aktivist i uvijek je bio na strani nenasilja. Gandhi je nastojao vlastima donijeti istinu isključivo mirnim putem. Zato se već 15 godina svake godine na njegov rođendan, 2. listopada, obilježava Međunarodni dan nenasilja.

Nasilje i prijetnje nasiljem jedni su od najvećih problema s kojima se susreću pripadnici romskih zajednica diljem svijeta. Romi su kroz povijest bili žrtve nasilja, ne samo da ih je ugnjetavala država i vlasti, nego i ljudi koji nisu Romi. Sve zbog toga što Romi nisu bili zaštićeni ni viđeni kao jednaki u društvu. Čak i sada, u većini zemalja Romi se doživljavaju kao “ostali”. Dakle, Romi nisu dobro zaštićeni od nasilja. Nažalost, nasilje je stvarnost i unutar romskih zajednica. A najčešće žrtve obiteljskog nasilja su Romkinje.

Gandhi je svoj život posvetio zalaganju za ljudska prava. Istaknuti indijski političar od 1893. do 1914. živio je u Južnoj Africi, gdje je radio kao odvjetnik. Jednog dana izbacili su ga iz vagona, uz objašnjenje da je vagon "samo za bijelce". Tako je razradio svoje filozofske poglede na potlačenost rasa u društvu. I razvio je uvjerenje koje su prigrlili milijuni ljudi: "Svi smo jedno". Gandhi je polagao veliku nadu u svoju metodu suočavanja s diskriminacijom i nasiljem, nadajući se da će čak i najnemilosrdniji vladari ublažiti svoje stavove. Vlastitim naporima i naporima svojih sljedbenika Gandhi je ipak uspio postići neovisnost Indije.

Kasnije su tu ideju prihvatili i drugi politički aktivisti. Na primjer, Martin Luther King - borac za prava Afroamerikanaca - bio je inspiriran Gandhijem. Nelson Mandela, koji je također dijelio zajedničku gandijevsku viziju čovječanstva koje nadilazi kulturne i rasne razlike još je i više bio inspiriran. Ova tri genijalca mogli bismo nazvati "misionarima nenasilja".

I unatoč tome što fizičko i psihičko nasilje prati čovječanstvo u svim sferama života. Nenasilna prisila, paradoksalno, ne zahtijeva upotrebu fizičke sile. Može biti u obliku prosvjeda i uvjeravanja (marševi, protesti), nesuradnje i drugih sličnih mjera (blokada, preuzimanja prostorija ili zgrada bez ozljeđivanja ljudi). Takve radnje mogu pomoći u rješavanju sukoba bez pribjegavanja nasilnim metodama.

Neki ljudi govore o nenasilnim metodama prisiljavanja političara da mijenjaju zakone i društvo kao o najboljim rezultatima tzv „grassroot politika“. Ovo je termin iz moderne političke znanosti; na primjer, u SAD-u se koristi za označavanje spontanih pokreta "odozdo". „Grassroots“ pokreti konvencionalno se definiraju kao „istinski“ pokreti koje organiziraju građani kako bi se zauzeli za svoja prava. No, to su usvojili i ljudi u borbi za socijalnu pravdu. Nažalost, suvremeni svijet još uvijek je svijet ratova, nasilja i nepravde za nestabilne dijelove društva. Obilježavanje ovog dana stoga je vrlo važno i potrebno. Posvećeno je ljudima koji koriste nenasilne metode borbe, koje ne čine ništa nažao životu i zdravlju protivnika.

 

 

 

 

Problems of ethnic discrimination, as well as problems of violence in society as a whole, have many faces: physical, economic, psychological, legal and so on. The last centuries have been record-breaking in the scale and intensity of violence in the world, as well as in the amount of blood spilled in wars, riots and revolutions. Roma know that better than especially after Porajmos. Like other members of ethnic minorities and people from disadvantaged groups, Roma often face various forms of discrimination and violence on a daily basis even today.

Indeed, there is no such thing as useful, good or appropriate violence. Nor does it have a noble purpose.  Violence never helps, and discrimination halts the development of society as a whole. Violence in any form is terrible. And no living being has the right to hurt or bully another living being.

Some individuals fight against violence. Others, on the contrary, are trying to "understand and forgive". Mahatma Gandhi, a man who devoted his life in order to end racial, caste and ethnic discrimination by peaceful means, is famous for the latter. He was a philosopher, political and social activist and was always on the side of non-violence. Gandhi tried to bring the truth to the authorities exclusively through peaceful ways. That is why the International Day of Non-Violence has been celebrated annually for the past 15 years on the date of his birth, October 2.

Violence and the threat of violence is one of the biggest problems which face member of Roma communities all over the world. Throughout history Roma were victims of violence not only from the state and local authorities, but also from many non-Roma. Because Roma people were not protected or seen as an equal part of the society. Even now, in most countries Roma are seen as “others”. Thus, Roma are not well protected from violence. Unfortunately, violence is the reality inside of Roma communities as well. And most often victims of domestic violence are Roma women.

Gandhi devoted his life to standing up for human rights. The prominent Indian politician lived in South Africa from 1893 to 1914, where he worked as a lawyer. One day he was pushed out of a train wagon, with the explanation that the wagon was "for white people only". Thus, he elaborated his philosophical views on the oppression of races in society. And he developed a belief that was embraced by millions of people: "We are all one". Gandhi had a great hope in his method of facing discrimination and violence, hoping that even the most ruthless rulers would be mollified. Through his own efforts and those of his followers, Gandhi still managed to achieve India's independence.

Later, other political activists took up this idea. For example, Martin Luther King - a fighter for the rights of people of color – was inspired by Gandhi. Let alone, Nelson Mandela, who also shared common Gandhian vision of humanity transcending cultural and racial differences. These three geniuses could be called "the missionaries of non-violence".

And despite the fact that physical and mental violence follows humanity in all spheres of life. Nonviolent coercion, paradoxically, does not require the use of physical force. It can take the form of protest and persuasion (marches, pickets), non-cooperation and other similar measures (blockades, taking over the premises or buildings without harming people). Such actions can help to resolve the conflict without resorting to violent methods.

Some people refer to non-violent methods of coercing politicians to change laws and society as best results of "grassroots politics". This is a term from modern political science; for example, in the US it is used to refer to spontaneous movements "from below". “Grassroots" movements are conventionally defined as "true" movements organized by citizens to stand for their rights. However, this was adopted as well by the people in the struggle for social justice. Unfortunately, the modern world still is a world of wars, violence and injustice for socially unstable parts of society. So, this celebration is both necessary and important. It is dedicated to people who use non-violent methods of battle that do not harm the health and life of the opponents.

 

 

 

 
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